Tiree Survey: Hynish Boundaries

The Tiree Survey is an archaeological field investigation of settlement evidence on the island of Tiree undertaken by the Association of Certificated Field Archaeologists in partnership with John Holliday and An Iodhlann historical centre. The survey began in 2016 and to date has examined visible remains on the machair notably at Hough, as well as a group of 19th century buildings at Kilkenneth and a dwelling on a strip of improved, peripheral land at Loch Dubh a Gharaidh Fail between Balephetrish and Vaul. Work is currently concentrated on the slopes of Hynish located towards the south-western part of the island.

The Hynish landscape is characterised by mixtures of heather, rough grasses, outcrops of gneiss and peaty bog at the foot of south-east facing slopes. There is limited improved land to the east and north which contrasts with dramatic cliffs and gullies to the south. A survey of this varied landscape has revealed a picture of intense activity from prehistoric to modern times with 430 features recorded to date. Those putatively identified as prehistoric include several cairns, kerbed mounds and hut circles. There is also later evidence of houses and enclosures, huts, and features associated with pastoral activity such as lambing and calving. Significantly, the survey has identified 1000 lines of boundaries including single stones, combinations of stone and turf and a long post-improvement dyke. A large 19th century fank almost certainly incorporated re-used stone from earlier boundaries.

Due to the complexity of this picture on Hynish we concluded that it would not be possible to interpret settlement evidence detached from boundary lines. The key aim of this current survey is to produce a map combining boundary data and settlement evidence in terms of their relative positions in the landscape and to posit associations between the two. The hope is that the survey will identify overlying boundaries providing an opportunity to suggest earlier and later activity.  To date, this is the case in ten instances.

The Hynish Boundary Survey presents several challenges for an amateur archaeological society skilled in field survey and manpower rich but with limited access to funding and equipment. This initial report is a ‘warts and all’ glimpse of progress to date and is intended not only to update members of the Association but also to be of interest to others, in particular similar amateur societies and community groups. It shows our workings, so to speak – our mistakes, challenges, limitations and, we hope, successes.

Elaine Black, co-Director

Report authors, Ailsa Smith and Edward Smith

Tiree Horizons

In April 2016 ACFA embarked on a new major project on the island of Tiree, the westernmost of the Inner Hebrides. With the initial aim of identifying possible medieval or Norse settlement sites which are indicated by place-name evidence, a wealth of archaeology has been surveyed during the original visit and in subsequent trips in October 2016 and April 2017 with a future visit planned for April next year.  The interim report for the April 2016 findings can be found here 

Tiree Horizons: Interim Report

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Initial Fieldwork in the Irvine Valley



Initial field walking and revisiting of recorded sites along the banks of the Rivers Irvine and Garnock began in January this year as a consequence of the inspiring work carried out by ACFA member Richard Pugh on Dundonald Castle which he is planning to expand into a wider study of the Irvine Valley embracing place name studies and the concentrations of prehistoric and Early Historic activity.

In this work we hope also to complement and revisit the early ACFA Occasional Paper 23 by Jim Mair, Anne Wood and Gerry Hearns of 1996, which has survey plans and descriptions of over thirty sites in the middle valley.

The survey is an occasional walkover convened by a small team on an ad hoc basis and a short presentation was given at the post-Xmas bash which encouraged interest from some further members.

The first study area being covered is along the lower reaches of the River Garnock from which AD 19C antiquarian reports note a rich record of prehistoric cists, cairns, flint scatters, a possible crannog, some Anglo Saxon strap ends and an Arabic dirham. This suggests the tantalising possibility of early beach emporiums in this area of shifting sand dunes, river systems and islands. The Ardeer or Stevenston Sands area has been probably irrevocably compromised by almost a century of Nobel and ICI explosive complexes creating a rapidly deteriorating massive industrial archaeological landscape rapidly being reclaimed by nature.

No formal survey is possible in these circumstances and days out have involved small teams re-visiting those sites which are in the Canmore record, recording their current state, identifying any new sites immediately connected with the river environment and trying work out the topography of this dynamic and scarred landscape.

Contact: Margaret Gardiner, Libby King, Gerry Hearns or Ian Marshall for more Information.


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Planes, boats and automobiles

 The recent ACFA Tiree Survey was anything but uneventful – yet the outcomes were impressive.

 Members shrugged off broken-down cars, cancelled flights due to unprecedented snow (Tiree last had a significant episode 25 years ago) and a lost day of fieldwork due to said snowfall, to survey more than 80 archaeological features on the island, many previously unrecorded. Quite an achievement in just four working days.

 The survey was a true ‘multi-agency’  endeavour. ACFA worked closely with the islanders themselves, Dr Heather James of Northlight Heritage, and Norse and medieval experts Dr Colleen Batey and Dr David Caldwell. The pooling of resources included an Archaeology Week which coincided with the island’s annual celebration of all things healthy – a half-marathon,  a lecture evening in the village hall, and a ceilidh. 

 The ACFA Tiree survey was prompted by local doctor John Holliday who has, over many years, collected more than 180 place-names of Norse origin. This suggests that the Norse presence on the island was substantial and long-lasting. However, to date there has been little archaeological evidence to support this thesis. One of the aims of the ACFA survey was to begin the process of identifying and tentatively dating medieval and pre-improvement settlement evidence on the island. 

 There have been several attempts to identify medieval – and in particular Norse – settlements on Tiree in the past. However, these have been hampered by severe sand-blow.  Many small townships seen on a 1768 Argyll Estate map, for example, have disappeared and the ephemeral nature of pre-improvement Tiree houses also leads to problems of identification without archaeological excavation. This might equally be said of cottar dwellings of the later period. So not an easy task!

 Among the highlights of the ACFA survey was a complex and significant multi-period landscape on the bluff headland Hynish, to the south of the island. A team, led by Dugald  MacInnes, surveyed an impressive 42 features, many previously unrecorded. These included a possible stone circle, one, possibly two, putative robbed-out kerbed cairns, several round huts and several small farmsteads and houses, some with enclosures. The exact relationship of these latter features to a complicated system of field boundaries of various periods and nearby Dun Shiader (‘fort of the shieling’ in Norse) will scratch many heads during future visits.

 At Loch Dubh a’ Gharraidh Fail, Balephetrish, near the spectacular Ringing Stone, Wendy Raine’s group worked on a dwelling that had been noted on Canmore as a church or possible Norse house. The house in its present form has now been tentatively identified by Batey and Caldwell as dating from after the Norse period. The jury is out as to whether it is medieval or later. It is hoped future test-pitting at the site will assist with assigning a date which can then be used as a template for other, similar house sites on the island.

Dwelling, Loch Dubh a’ Gharraidh Fail, Balephetrish. General view looking West

At Ceann a’ Mhara, which occupies a commanding position over-looking Loch a’ Phuill and Balephuil beach, Ian Marshall, Fred Hay and Ollie Rusk recorded two possible medieval houses. One of these was listed as an ancient dwelling on Canmore and having seen the drawing, Dr Caldwell has confirmed he is happy to assign a medieval date. If this is the case, it will be one of the first identified medieval dwellings on Tiree.


Fred Hay, Ian Marshall (ACFA) and Ollie Rusk (Glasgow University), with Flora who was born in Balephuil, on the slopes of Ceann a’ Mhara, Tiree.

The survey at Kilkenneth, on the face of it, was less ground-breaking – a cluster of farmsteads and buildings, several of which are recorded as roofed in first edition OS maps. However, this exercise will contribute greatly to our understanding of island house styles over time – and the effects of sand and erosion on such features. Janet MacDonald’s team also threw up an interesting conundrum – the Tiree triangular enclosure. Triangular – rather than rectangular enclosures – seem to be a feature on the island. A longhouse drawn by Ian Marshall at Hough and certainly earlier than 1768 because it does not appear on estate maps, has a similar triangular enclosure. If any members have come across this elsewhere in the Hebrides, it would be useful to hear from them. Until then, a romantic might suggest that this is a cultural tic – an echo of sacred, Norse triangular enclosures. Hmm.

Now, where did we put that triangle? Frances Hood, Helen Maxwell and Janet MacDonald, Kilkenneth, Tiree.

Other notable finds were the identification by Frances Hood of a beautiful ‘knocking’ or grinding stone carved out of Tiree marble which she remembered from past visits to the island on holiday. The object has lain partially buried at the front of a house in Caolas.

And finally, at the eleventh hour, as members were preparing to stagger on to the Cal Mac ferry for home, the interest raised on the island by the Archaeology Week, and the enthusiastic participation of locals in ACFA fieldwork, may have led archaeologists Colleen Batey and Heather James to a burial site of national significance. More on this to follow, and a full report on the 2016 Tiree Survey will appear in the next ACFA magazine. 
** Many thanks to the people of Tiree and Dr John Holliday for a warm welcome and a memorable few days.
Below left: Knocking stone Right: View of stone circle looking south.

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